La mia libertà finisce dove inizia la tua…come si traduce questo concetto nella comunicazione?

Lo studio del linguaggio non verbale ha dato luogo, tra l’altro, alla prossemica.

La prossemica ha a che fare con la distanza fisica nella comunicazione.

Avete mai visto, al parco, due estranei seduti su una panchina? La loro lontananza, secondo la prossemica, sottolinea la relazione di estraneità.

Questa disciplina analizza le differenze nella distanza fisica e nella comunicazione interpersonale che hanno origine culturale (ad es. le popolazioni mediterranee sono inclini a far avvicinare gli estranei fisicamente a sé molto più di quelle nordiche; i giapponesi utilizzano l’inchino come segno di saluto che, per gli occidentali, esprime, invece, un segno di ringraziamento molto accentuato).

Il termine prossemica è stato introdotto dall’antropologo americano Edward T. Hall (1914-2009), che, nel suo testo “La dimensione nascosta” (1966), ha individuato quattro tipologie di distanza interpersonale:

  1. la distanza intima (meno di 45 cm circa), che configura rapporti stretti di affetto e parentela; è la distanza nella quale operano, soprattutto, l’apparato tattile e olfattivo;
  2. la distanza personale (da 45 a 120 cm circa), che connota le relazioni d’amicizia e comporta una condizione di prossimità nella quale è possibile stabilire un contatto tattile, ma non più di una comunicazione olfattiva;
  3. la distanza sociale (da 120 a 360 cm circa), che identifica le relazioni formale e impersonale nelle quali la comunicazione è principalmente uditiva e visiva;
  4. la distanza pubblica (più di 360 cm circa) che riguarda le situazioni pubbliche e comporta la messa in sicurezza, cioè una distanza sufficiente dagli altri per poter reagire ad eventuali segnali ostili.

Quando si valuta, sul piano logistico, la coerenza dell’ambiente con il profilo comunicativo della persona, occorre tenere conto di questi fattori perché incidono direttamente sulla capacità di comunicare e condividere.

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