Nel mio precedente articolo su come riconoscere la dislessia ho avuto già modo di specificare che esistono diversi gradi di dislessia: lieve, medio e severo.

Una corretta strategia didattica non può non tener conto del tipo di “gravità” della dislessia così come deve tenere conto della caratteristica, tipica dei DSA, della “comorbidità”, ovvero della possibilità che diverse tipologie di DSA possano essere presenti in uno stesso individuo.

La difficoltà principale che incontra una persona dislessica, ma, in generale, una persona con DSA, è legata all’assenza di automatismi, cioè alla capacità di svolgere più compiti contemporaneamente, come, ad esempio, guidare e parlare, in quanto automatici, naturali. Di conseguenza un alunno dislessico presenterà difficoltà di apprendimento degli automatismi cognitivi propri della scrittura e della lettura, sempre ricordando la possibilità di eventuali ricadute su altri DSA, e , quindi, potrà svolgere un compito alla volta.

Nel creare una strategia didattica “ad hoc” per un alunno con dislessia, tipica del mio approccio professionale creativo del metodo di studio, tengo ben presente alcuni aspetti legati alla dislessia, nonché del livello di dislessia, del livello di autostima, per valutare quanto “alzare l’asticella” delle aspettative personali e familiari.

In merito alla lettura è possibile aumentarne la velocità fino al termine della scuola secondaria di primo grado e l’obiettivo che mi pongo con questi alunni, qualora frequentino la scuola primaria, è quello di portarli ad una velocità di lettura di circa 3 sillabe al secondo, tenendo presente che la media di lettura di un alunno senza DSA è quella di 3,5 sillabe al secondo alla fine della scuola primaria; diverso è per studenti più grandi per cui l’obiettivo è quello di arrivare a 4 sillabe al secondo per affrontare al meglio testi più complessi tipo quelli della scuola secondaria di secondo grado.

Per fare ciò mi avvalgo di esercizi specifici, da me ideati, mirati a catturare l’attenzione, a mantenere la concentrazione e ad aumentare, piano piano, la velocità. Per fare un esempio scelgo una parola, ad esempio “sole”, su una stringa di 3 parole, aumentandone via via il numero, massimo 7 parole, e invito lo studente a battere con la mano su un piano ogni volta che sente dalla mia voce questa parola, ovviamente in ordine sparso. Successivamente gli chiedo di leggere e ripetere ogni singola sequenza e, infine, di copiare le parole e, nel caso di errori, di autocorreggerle.

Relativamente alla parte scritta l’obiettivo è di ridurre al massimo la possibilità di scambiare le lettere e limitare il più possibile gli errori ortografici anche se la scuola, secondo le disposizioni vigenti, non deve tenere conto di questi nella valutazione. Per fare questo, semplicemente, sottopongo allo studente un testo con degli errori che lui deve trovare e correggere, aumentando sempre di più il livello di difficoltà sempre sulla base di quanto scritto sopra.

Per abituare uno studente con dislessia “all’arte” dell’organizzazione, utile nello studio delle materie orali, invito i genitori a comprare un planning da tavolo nel quale lo studente possa riportare, in modo autonomo, gli impegni del giorno, i compiti da svolgere, fornendo una sequenza sulla base della tempistica e delle priorità.

Nello studio delle materie orali, tipo della storia, creo, insieme allo studente, una scaletta di punti essenziali allo studio di questa materia, tipo tempo, luogo, cultura, relazioni di causa-effetto (per la geografia, ad esempio, saranno gli elementi naturali, animali, ambiente, distribuzione della popolazione, abitudini di vita, tipologie di sostentamento, economia) e lo abituo a comprendere il testo a partire dal titolo del capitolo e di ogni paragrafo invitandolo a discriminare, man mano, le parti del testo veramente importanti da quelle che fungono da corollario. Tale esercizio può avvenire tramite l’utilizzo di colori, sottolineature, disegnini.

In alcuni casi predisponiamo la ripetizione orale avvalendoci di presentazioni creative su power point contenenti gli argomenti studiati e riportati sinteticamente nelle parti più importanti.

In merito al discorso relativo agli strumenti compensativi e alle misure dispensative, di cui ho già avuto modo di parlare in miei precedenti articoli in materia di DSA, trovo utile che lo studente ne crei di personalizzati, laddove, ovviamente, non sia previsto l’utilizzo di programmi informatici specifici. Per fare un esempio lo studente può creare delle mappe concettuali sugli argomenti principali di grammatica, tipo aggettivi, nomi, sostantivi, e altro; può creare lui stesso schemi riassuntivi dei principali argomenti di una materia, e altro….

Ho riportato solo alcuni esempi del mio lavoro pedagogico ma è chiaro che sono solo delle piccole gocce in un mare di attività creative che si possono inventare e creare sempre nell’ottica di rendere il periodo della scuola il più spensierato possibile per ogni bambino/ragazzo.

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