In questo primo articolo fornisco dei suggerimenti per riconoscere un bambino con DSA, ovvero con disturbi dell’apprendimento che interessano alcune abilità specifiche e che devono essere acquisite da bambini e ragazzi in età scolare, nell’ambito della lettura, della scrittura e del calcolo, soffermandomi sulla dislessia.

Solo per memo: attualmente gli alunni con DSA non hanno diritto all’insegnante di sostegno ma hanno diritto, grazie alla Legge 170/10, a strumenti didattici e tecnologici di tipo compensativo (calcolatrice, correttore ortografico, programmi di videoscrittura, sintesi vocale e registratore) e a misure dispensative che permettono loro non di non fare, come si potrebbe erroneamente pensare, ma di sostituire alcune tipologie di prove valutative con altre equipollenti, che siano per loro più adatte.

La dislessia comporta difficoltà che possono essere di grado lieve, medio o severo nella lettura e nella comprensione dei testi ma possono esserci ripercussioni anche sui numeri, dovute alla difficoltà di comprendere il testo del problema e alla concettualizzazione astratta, e nella memorizzazione di specifici termini.

Ci sono dei segnali che sia i genitori che gli insegnanti possono cogliere nell’alunno con dislessia.

Nell’ambito del linguaggio non è raro riscontrare in tali alunni difficoltà in tal senso. E’ probabile, infatti, che essi abbiano avuto difficoltà di linguaggio nei primi tre anni di vita: ad esempio iniziare a parlare dopo i due anni, iniziare verso l’anno di vita ma mantenendo, nel tempo, un linguaggio povero, oppure con difficoltà a pronunciare bene le parole o non riuscire a costruire una frase in modo del tutto esatto. Inoltre il bambino con dislessia potrebbe, parlando, usare parole diverse tra loro credendo che significhino la stessa cosa, oppure avere poco interesse a parlare in maniera “corretta” continuando, laddove la famiglia tende ad utilizzarli, dei termini “infantili” ai quali, personalmente, sono sempre stata contraria (ad es. pupù, il baubau….). Per concludere il bambino potrebbe avere difficoltà ad imparare parole nuove a memoria e fatica molto ad imparare l’alfabeto a memoria, sempre che riesca ad impararlo, prima o poi, tutto.

Molti genitori mi chiedono come mai il loro figlio, con diagnosi di dislessia, in realtà, nel momento in cui ascolta un brano o una fiaba letta da un’altra persona, sembri comprendere bene il senso di quanto gli viene raccontato. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che un brano letto ha una ritmica specifica ed una punteggiatura che riordina, di per sé, il contenuto dello stesso e che, quindi, ne facilita l’organizzazione in quanto non spetta al bambino tale processo.

Diverso è quando si affronta la lettura in modo autonomo in quanto il bambino potrebbe non comprendere del tutto il senso di ciò che legge se il contenuto è ricco di frasi subordinate e se sono pochi gli esempi legati alla realtà concreta presenti nel discorso, qualora si tratti di ascoltare qualcosa.

In ogni caso il mio consiglio, a fronte di alcuni o tutti dei suddetti comportamenti, è quello di escludere, a priori, problematiche fisiologiche (vista, udito, valori del ferro e valori tiroidei), ma, soprattutto, di essere certi che in ambito scolastico siano state fornite adeguate opportunità di apprendimento per tutti, tenendo sempre presente, in questo senso mi rivolgo soprattutto ai genitori, che non tutti i bambini hanno gli stessi tempi di apprendimento e che una diagnosi precoce (prima della fine della seconda classe della scuola primaria) potrebbe essere controproducente in quanto potenzialmente falsata e, quindi, non veritiera.

La diagnosi

La diagnosi di dislessia può avvenire sia nelle strutture pubbliche territoriali, con uno specifico Centro di Neuropsichiatria all’interno, sia in centri privati, anche convenzionati, con la presenza di esperti con specifiche competenze nella valutazione di diagnosi legate all’apprendimento.

Per arrivare ad una diagnosi chiara di dislessia, così come, in generale, di ogni disturbo/difficoltà di apprendimento, si deve indagare sulle capacità cognitive del bambino, procedendo con un test di intelligenza, sulle abilità prassiche, attraverso strumenti che misurino le abilità del movimento volontario, sulle abilità spaziali, di linguaggio e mnemoniche.

Successivamente si procederà con test appositi per valutare, sempre tenendo conto dell’età dell’alunno:

  • il livello di lettura in termini di rapidità, correttezza di parole, non parole e brani;
  • il livello di scrittura sia sotto dettatura che attraverso copiati;
  • il livello di calcolo tramite calcoli scritti e a mente, lettura e scrittura di numeri, anch’essi sotto dettatura e tramite copiati;
  • il livello di comprensione del testo;
  • la velocità di discriminazione delle sillabe e delle competenze fonologiche.

Sulla base di una diagnosi di dislessia si formula una diagnosi funzionale, così denominata in quanto è una diagnosi funzionale alla stesura di un progetto educativo e didattico il più mirato possibile al disturbo del bambino, che non miri a sottolineare le sue difficoltà né ad etichettarlo, ma che lo aiuti ad affrontare al meglio il suo percorso scolastico.

Nel prossimo articolo vi illustrerò alcune delle mie strategie didattiche per la dislessia.

133 Commenti

  1. Mi spiace molto leggere di una pedagogista che sostanzialmente sostiene questa medicalizzazione assurda introdotta dalla legge 170/2010. La diagnosi di DSA è la maggior parte delle volte un processo stigmatizzante, che pochissima informazione rilevante fornisce per il recupero delle difficoltà e per il loro superamento. Il PDP poi è la parte peggiore. Imbriglia la didattica rendendola spesso inadeguata per il recupero, mettendo paletti fissi che comportano molte volte dannose facilitazioni e ottuse dispense.

    La pedagogia dovrebbe combattere questo modo di approcciare le difficoltà, non blandirlo. Così le difficoltà le si cristallizza solamente.

    Nemmeno ha scritto che suggerire la scrittura in stampatello maiuscolo invece che in corsivo è contrario a ciò che dicono praticamente tutte le ricerche. E che per chi ha difficoltà di cosiddetta dislessia il corsivo è consigliato grandemente.

    • Questa sua riflessione mi fa pensare che non abbia letto tutti i miei articoli dedicati a questo argomento e che non abbia, quindi, una visione globale di quello che è il mio modo di pensare la pedagogia, che vede il metodo di studio come la principale strada da percorrere, a fronte delle difficoltà di uno studente relativamente al suo approccio verso lo studio, prima di rivolgersi alle strutture sanitarie per “cercare un problema” a tutti i cosi che giustifichi eventuali insuccessi scolastici, comportamento che ho sempre condannato a priori. Non a caso, infatti, ho pensato ad un metodo di studio creativo e flessibile che che fosse adatto a tutte le tipologie di alunni, non necessariamente con difficoltà. Prevedo sempre e comunque l’utilizzo del corsivo (specialmente in presenza di disgrafia) per i motivi che conosce anche lei e che ritengo validi in generale. Non posso, però, non tenere conto del fatto che le scuole, in alcuni casi ancora adesso, non riescono a gestire correttamente alunni con DSA, commettendo degli errori con forti ripercussioni, anche emotive, negli alunni (ad esempio un insegnante di italiano delle medie si era fissato che una sua alunna non dovesse assolutamente avere verifiche semplificate nè utilizzare i colori come discriminanti portandola ad un livello di frustrazione tale da provocarle forti crisi di ansia). Interpreto la legge 170/2010 come una forma di tutela di alunni con DSA a fronte di comportamenti non corretti da parte delle scuole, laddove presenti, ed il PDP come uno strumento di partenza e non di arrivo, con la finalità di lavorare bene limitando le frustrazioni dell’alunno in difficoltà.

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