Lo Smart Working, anche chiamato Lavoro Agile o Delocalizzato a seconda della realtà lavorativa in cui ci si trova, rappresenta, già da tempo, una nuova frontiera nella concezione di lavoro dipendente.

Si tratta di un rapporto di lavoro subordinato che consente al dipendente di svolgere la propria attività lavorativa in parte all’interno ed in parte all’esterno della propria sede di lavoro, sempre rispettando l’orario di lavoro giornaliero e settimanale previsto a livello contrattuale, con un trattamento economico pari a quello dei colleghi che svolgono le medesime mansioni esclusivamente all’interno della propria sede lavorativa.

Questa formula si adatta, principalmente, a dipendenti che, avendo le adeguate competenze digitali, sono in grado di utilizzare tecnologie “mobili”, come portatili, tablet e smartphone, con la possibilità di lavorare ovunque.

Tale modalità lavorativa è utile sia al dipendente in quanto abbattendo il tempo di percorrenza tra casa e lavoro e viceversa, riesce a conciliare meglio il tempo professionale con il tempo libero e, specialmente, riduce la quantità di emissione di smog, aiutando l’ambiente, specialmente in questo periodo in cui la tematica ambientale assume una rilevanza così preoccupante.

Esistono, in effetti, degli aspetti meno positivi che potrebbero sembrare secondari ma, al contrario, assumono un’importanza rilevante per il dipendente, relativi al contesto sociale, con un notevole danneggiamento del livello di rendimento.

L’autonomia lavorativa, spesso, viene contrapposta al senso di isolamento da ciò che avviene in ufficio quotidianamente, all’impossibilità di confrontarsi con un collega sul momento; al senso di appartenenza ad un gruppo, inteso come gruppo aziendale, che si percepisce come mancante, specialmente per chi è abituato a lavorare in un contesto di più persone. Non sottovaluterei neanche il “quotidiano” che si instaura in un ambiente lavorativo numeroso: la pausa caffè, la possibilità di chiedere una mano in situazioni di difficoltà, il pranzare o fare colazione con i colleghi, anche diversificando la compagnia, che interrompono la routine e danno un po’ di respiro, ricarica ed energia.

Mi occupai di Smart Working anni fa, in TIM, collaborando con il settore Human Resources (in pratica Risorse Umane/Personale) ad un progetto formativo relativo a questa modalità, anche sperimentato personalmente, nel quale emersero risultati inattesi, in senso positivo, a livello di produttività e di motivazione al lavoro, ma anche aspetti più negativi, legati alla socializzazione, che ho dettagliato sopra, ma anche a preconcetti e pregiudizi tipici della nostra mentalità.  

E’ stato riscontrato, infatti, da studi di settore[1] che in Italia tale pratica stenta a decollare, come dovrebbe essere, proprio perché per un “capo” italiano è ancora troppo complicato immaginare un proprio collaboratore lavorare veramente lontano dai propri occhi ed anche i colleghi che rimangono in sede, spesso, stentano a credere che realmente chi è in Smart Working lavori come e quanto loro.

Per concludere sono convinta che serva un cambiamento di tutta l’organizzazione aziendale perché questo processo possa essere attuato con la consapevolezza che rappresenti realmente un cambiamento che apre nuove scenari interessanti sotto più punti di vista.

Si deve partire dal coinvolgimento di tutte le figure aziendali, a partire dal vertice, con il fine di abbandonare la rigidità gerarchica e la cultura del controllo, imparando a misurare le attività delle persone sul raggiungimento degli obiettivi e non sulle ore di permanenza in ufficio che, peraltro, possono non essere direttamente proporzionali alla reale quantità/qualità del lavoro da svolgere.

Altrettanto fondamentale è investire al massimo, da parte delle aziende, sulla formazione in materia di competenze digitali.

Non è semplice che ciò si attui e, proprio per questo ritengo che la strada che porta al riconoscimento di questa pratica al pari di quella che potrei definire tradizionale è, a mio avviso, ancora lunga ma, attenzione, non impossibile!

[1] Osservatorio HR Innovation Practice School of Management (MI)

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