Lo spunto per questo articolo me lo hanno fornito i ragazzi che seguo e che, quest’anno, si accingono a sostenere l’esame di terza media, il primo, per loro, di una lunga serie.

Al momento tralascerò la parte relativa ai cosiddetti alunni “normodotati” per fare spazio ad un focus sugli alunni disabili, alunni con DSA ed alunni con BES, sempre tenuto conto della normativa vigente del MIUR [1].

Alunni disabili

Gli allievi con disabilità certificata comprensiva di diagnosi funzionale[2] svolgeranno prove differenziate sia nelle prove scritte che nell’esame orale. Tali prove serviranno a testare i progressi raggiunti dall’alunno in base ai livelli di partenza e alle potenzialità riportate nel Piano Educativo Individuale (PEI).

Prove scritte: gli allievi con disabilità possono utilizzare attrezzature tecniche e sussidi didattici. Le prove d’esame hanno la stessa validità di quelle somministrate agli altri allievi.

Prova orale: serve a valutare le conoscenze e le competenze raggiunte in base al Piano Educativo Individuale.

Voto: il voto è espresso in decimi e non fa riferimento allo svolgimento speciale delle prove.

Prove Invalsi: “la tipologia di disabilità di questi alunni deve essere segnalata sulla Scheda Risposta dei singoli studenti, barrando l’opzione più appropriata fra quelle di seguito indicate (che rispecchiano la categorizzazione utilizzata per l’esame di conclusione del primo ciclo): 1=disabilità intellettiva; 2=disabilità visiva: ipovedente; 3=disabilità visiva: non vedente; 4=DSA; 5=altro. Ciò consentirà di considerare a parte i risultati degli alunni disabili e di non farli rientrare nella elaborazione statistica dei risultati di tutti gli altri alunni.

Tenuto conto di quanto sopra, la decisione di far partecipare o meno (e se sì con quali modalità) gli alunni con certificazione di disabilità intellettiva (o di altra disabilità grave), seguiti da un insegnante di sostegno, alle Prove Invalsi è rimessa al giudizio della singola scuola.

Questa può:

1) non far partecipare alle prove gli alunni con disabilità intellettiva o altra disabilità grave, impegnandoli nei giorni delle prove in un’altra attività;

2) farli partecipare insieme agli altri studenti della classe, purché sia possibile

assicurare che ciò non modifichi in alcun modo le condizioni di somministrazione, in particolare se si tratta di classi campione.

Gli alunni ipovedenti o non vedenti partecipano alle prove nelle stesse condizioni degli altri (i fascicoli loro destinati sono stampati con caratteri ingranditi o sono in scrittura Braille).”[3]

Alunni con Disturbi Specifici di Apprendimento (DSA)

Gli alunni con Disturbi Specifici d’Apprendimento certificati[4] svolgeranno prove scritte e orali con modalità adeguate.

Prove scritte: gli allievi con DSA potranno utilizzare gli strumenti compensativi previsti dal Piano Didattico Personalizzato (PDP). Inoltre: vanno previsti tempi più lunghi di svolgimento delle prove scritte, vanno fatti utilizzare dispositivi di ascolto dei testi, va concessa la trascrizione del testo su un supporto informatico, va previsto di avere il supporto di un docente della commissione per la lettura e la comprensione delle tracce. Relativamente alla lingua straniera gli alunni, se dispensati nella certificazione dallo svolgimento della prova scritta, dovranno svolgere un esame orale sostitutivo da concordare durante l’anno scolastico.

Prova orale: serve a testare le conoscenze pluridisciplinari previste nel PDP.

Voto: il voto è espresso in decimi e, come sempre, si dovrà considerare solamente il contenuto, tralasciando la forma.

Prove Invalsi: verranno applicati gli stessi criteri delle prove d’esame non Invalsi ma dovranno essere sostenute.

Alunni con Bisogni Educativi Speciali (BES)

Per gli allievi con Bisogni Educativi Speciali[5] verrà stilato un PDP, che sarà consegnato alla Commissione d’esame, che dovrà tenere in considerazione in sede di esami, con tutte le indicazioni specifiche per consentire loro il corretto svolgimento di tutte le prove.

Prova scritta e prova orale: non è previsto che siano dispensati da alcuna prova d’esame ma possono utilizzare gli strumenti compensativi previsti.

Prove Invalsi: dovranno essere svolte regolarmente.


[1]D.lgs. 62/2017 cui ha fatto seguito il DM 741/2017; DM n. 742/2017; nota n. 1865 del 10 ottobre 2017; nota n. 312 del 9 gennaio 2018; nota n. 7885 del 9 maggio 2018; nota n. 5772 del 4 aprile 2019

[2] L.104/92

[3] Nota sugli Alunni disabili emanata direttamente dall’Istituto nazionale per la valutazione del sistema educativo di istruzione e formazione (INVALSI)

[4] L.170/2010

[5] I BES sono contemplati nella L.170/10 ma non sono soggetti a certificazione

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