Per schema si intende una rappresentazione semplificata delle parti essenziali di un evento o di un testo; l’aggettivo “schematico”  è sinonimo di essenziale, sintetico.

Lo schema è un’idea generale, una sintesi ristretta di un progetto, di un testo, di un discorso e può essere costituito da un solo concetto che si dirama in due direzioni come, ad esempio, quando si deve prendere una decisione e si valutano i pro ed i contro.

Gli schemi non solo fungono da contenitori di informazioni ma anche da organizzatori in quanto le organizzano in gerarchie concettuali (es. principio-applicazione) e le contengono entro categorie che funzionano come “scaffali” di un archivio permettendo di organizzare le informazioni in sistemi di conoscenze specifiche acquisite, man mano, tramite l’esperienza personale. Essi devono essere considerati come uno strumento fondamentale per uno studio efficace che favorisca l’apprendimento sostenendo un corollario di informazioni anche complesse.

E’ utile schematizzare in tre diversi momenti dello studio: all’inizio per riattivare le preconoscenze, durante per organizzare le nuove informazioni in arrivo, alla fine per rielaborare le informazioni.

Gli schemi concettuali possono essere di vari tipi ma elencherò solo i principali:

  • schema a corolla: c’è un nucleo centrale con il titolo o l’idea principale e da concetti secondari che, appunto, fanno da corollario all’argomento principale (Fig.1);
  • schema a croce: rimane il concetto di nucleo centrale al centro del foglio e si fanno partire, da questo, quattro direzioni a formare una croce (Fig.2);
  • schema ad albero: serve a visualizzare una gerarchia concettuale e se ne possono creare di diversi tipi (Fig.3)

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