Ho scelto di dedicare una serie di articoli allo studio dell’apprendimento cognitivo analizzando i principali aspetti di natura cognitiva ed emozionale attraverso la definizione di linguaggio e comunicazione e riportando i risultati di una microsperimentazione educativa basata sulla formazione pedagogica dei docenti.

In questo secondo articolo tratterò dell’importanza della sfera emotiva nella voglia di conoscere e nella motivazione a farlo.

  1. LE EMOZIONI

Un’emozione è uno stato soggettivo complesso che comprende aspetti cognitivi, soggettivi, fisiologici, motivazionali ed espressivi con funzione di monitorare il perseguimento di scopi di alto valore adattivo. Le emozioni possono essere positive o negative sia verso un soggetto che verso un evento.

  • Emozioni individuali positive e negative:
    • primarie (es. gioia, tristezza);
    • cognitive o della mente (es. interesse, curiosità) che si provano a fronte di uno scopo epistemico cioè relativo all’acquisizione/elaborazione di conoscenze.
  • Emozioni sociali positive e negative:
    • intrinsecamente sociali (es. amore, odio) relative all’interazione con l’altro
    • dell’immagine dell’altro (es. stima, ammirazione, disprezzo) che originano un’idea positiva o negativa dell’altro o di una situazione.
    • dell’immagine e dell’autoimmagine (es. imbarazzo, senso di colpa, soddisfazione) a fronte del raggiungimento o meno dello scopo dell’immagine o dell’autoimmagine.

Le emozioni sono collegate agli scopi in tre sensi:

  1. A monte: la loro funzione biologica è monitorare il raggiungimento degli scopi adattivi
  2. A valle: ogni emozione tende ad attivare uno scopo o un’azione da compiere con urgenza
  3. Emozioni diventano scopi: se ne provi una piacevole ti viene voglia di riprovarla e viceversa, ci si comporta di conseguenza.
  1. LA VOGLIA DI CONOSCERE: EMOZIONI/MOTIVAZIONE ALL’APPRENDIMENTO

La motivazione è lo stato d’animo essenziale per l’apprendimento. Può essere intrinseca o estrinseca all’apprendimento a seconda dello scopo perseguito (es. intrinseca: studio per imparare; estrinseca: studio altrimenti prendo un brutto voto e rovino la media).

La motivazione ad apprendere genera un elevato livello di attenzione che è fondamentale nell’apprendimento.

Esistono quattro meccanismi motivazionali che, tramite una diversa interazione tra scopi ed emozioni, determinano la nascita di scopi epistemici, cioè la voglia di conoscere:

  • Scopo epistemico originario (il piacere di imparare): la motivazione intrinseca a studiare quella determinata materia, il che gli produrrà emozioni positive.
  • L’emozione del processo (imparare è un gioco): un insegnante che insegna una materia in modo giocoso, tipo giochi matematici, produrrà emozioni positive nell’alunno dando luogo al caso 1.
  • L’emozione per l’insegnante (trasferimento emotivo): apprezzare un insegnante farà studiare meglio la sua materia con lo scopo di fargli piacere. Trasferimento: emozione dello studente per l’insegnante= Emozione dello studente per la materia
  • L’emozione dell’insegnante (contagio emotivo): se all’insegnante piace molto la materia che insegna si capirà attraverso la mimica facciale, i movimenti, la postura. Ciò produrrà nello studente un contagio, un meccanismo primitivo di scambio di stati d’animo: emozione dell’insegnante per la materia=  Emozione dello studente per la materia.

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