Il CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) è un approccio metodologico, definito per la prima volta da David Marsh e Anne Maljers nel 1994, per l’apprendimento integrato di competenze linguistico-comunicative e disciplinari in lingua straniera.

Va specificato che non si applica al semplice insegnamento di una lingua (come l’inglese o lo spagnolo) ma all’insegnamento di una disciplina non linguistica (come la storia o la fisica) in una lingua straniera appartenente al piano di studi dello studente.

Attraverso questa metodologia si possono insegnare i contenuti di una data materia non in lingua italiana ma in lingua straniera: ciò favorisce sia l’acquisizione di contenuti disciplinari sia l’apprendimento della lingua straniera.

I passi per progettare un percorso didattico con la metodologia CLIL sono:

  1. partire da un argomento già noto agli alunni svolto precedentemente nella disciplina non linguistica (DNL);
  2. reperire il materiale in L2 in formato cartaceo o digitale. Attenzione! Non è prevista alcuna attività di traduzione del materiale didattico dalla L1 alla L2;
  3. semplificare i testi che si presentano troppo lunghi e di difficile comprensione;
  4. elaborare differenti attività tenendo conto delle differenze cognitive delle persone che devono apprendere;
  5. valutare il percorso e le competenze acquisite dagli studenti.

Tale metodologia può essere applicata efficacemente in ambito scolastico per le seguenti motivazioni:

– perché si può usare in tutti i livelli scolastici

– perché abitua gli studenti a condividere, confrontarsi, negoziare;

– per educare ad un approccio multiculturale e multidisciplinare del sapere;

– perché fornisce agli studenti l’opportunità di usare la L2 come lingua veicolare in contesti cognitivi significativi e diversi;

– perché permette di usare subito la lingua, quindi risulta motivante;

– perché tiene conto di stili cognitivi diversi, utilizzando metodi e tipi di attività diversificati;

– per migliorare le competenze nella lingua straniera attraverso lo studio di contenuti disciplinari;

– per stimolare una maggiore consapevolezza dei contenuti disciplinari attraverso l’apprendimento in lingua straniera.

Il CLIL entra a far parte degli obiettivi formativi prioritari del sistema scolastico italiano con la Legge 107 del 13 luglio 2015 (la Buona Scuola di Renzi). In particolare il comma 7 del suo unico articolo, recita quanto segue: “la Legge segnala come primo obiettivo “la valorizzazione e potenziamento delle competenze linguistiche, con particolare riferimento all’italiano nonché alla lingua inglese e ad altre lingue dell’Unione europea, anche mediante l’utilizzo della metodologia Content language integrated learning”.

Benchè la Nota MIUR del 25/7/2014 individuasse già delle norme transitorie per l’inserimento dell’insegnamento con metodologia CLIL nel quinto anno di licei e istituti tecnici e dal terzo anno per i linguistici, tale metodologia non ha ancora trovato una sua concretizzazione nella quotidianità di tutti i licei e degli istituti professionali e tecnici italiani.

L’insegnante che vuole insegnare tramite questa metodologia deve possedere:

  • competenze linguistico-comunicative nella lingua straniera veicolare almeno ad un livello B2 o livello C1;
  • competenze metodologico-didattiche acquisite al termine di un percorso di perfezionamento universitario: 60 CFU per i docenti in formazione iniziale e 20 CFU per i docenti già in servizio. Al termine del percorso si potrà conseguire un certificato attestante le competenze acquisite per l’insegnamento di una disciplina non linguistica in lingua straniera ai sensi dell’articolo 14 del decreto del MIUR 10 settembre 2010, n. 249.

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