La normativa prevede l’obbligo scolastico fino ai 16 anni e, nella scelta della scuola secondaria superiore, si può scegliere se frequentare un liceo oppure un istituto tecnico professionale che, senza obbligo di proseguire gli studi universitari, può aprire le porte al lavoro.

A tale proposito ci tengo a ricordare che l’istruzione è sempre istruzione e che deve essere superato il preconcetto che esistano offerte formative di serie A e di serie B: l’importante è studiare con impegno ed avere sempre chiari i propri obiettivi su cosa si voglia fare in futuro.

Genitori, ma, soprattutto ragazzi, mi chiedono come fare a non sbagliare nello scegliere cosa fare dopo le scuole medie. Il timore è di rimanere bloccati per anni in una situazione scolastica che non risponda alle proprie aspettative e rischiare di faticare immensamente, di finire ogni anno scolastico con l’ansia di non farcela o, ancora peggio, di scegliere di abbandonare gli studi.

Ovviamente non c’è una formula matematica esatta che possa dare la sicurezza di scegliere la scuola giusta ma, nell’affrontare tale scelta, è opportuno compiere alcuni passi con cui sarà più facile orientarsi per il meglio.

Premetto che non ho mai nascosto la mia perplessità sui test di orientamento che vengono somministrati agli alunni della terza media: troppe variabili possono inficiare emotivamente il test che, comunque, viene percepito da chi lo svolge come una prova per la quale, anche se non con un voto, verrà giudicato; inoltre quasi sempre gli studenti mi confessano di non ritrovarsi nei quadri finali che emergono dalle loro risposte e vanno in crisi se si sentono di scegliere altro.

Quando io terminai le scuole medie, i miei insegnanti parlarono prima con noi, chiedendo cosa volessimo fare in futuro e, poi, con i nostri genitori. Sulla base della loro conoscenza didattica, caratteriale ed attitudinale, delle nostre personalità consigliarono la scuola adatta a noi sapendo, ovviamente, che poi, ognuno di noi avrebbe scelto autonomamente.

Una cosa importante che voglio subito chiarire con studenti e genitori alle prese con le iscrizioni è che, in ogni caso, non è una condanna a morte scegliere un indirizzo sbagliato perché c’è sempre tempo per cambiarlo purchè lo si faccia non per capriccio ma per delle reali motivazioni.

Tempo fa uno studente che seguivo nel metodo di studio, bravissimo in storia dell’arte e capace di disegnare in modo spettacolare, peraltro convintissimo di intraprendere studi artistici, venne da me e mi disse che aveva optato per il liceo classico, avendo, comunque, anche buone capacità letterarie. Gli chiesi se fosse sicuro di questa scelta e mi rispose in modo affermativo ma senza riuscire a dare delle motivazioni reali e senza far trapelare alcuna forma di entusiasmo nel riferirmi la sua scelta. Ovviamente, oltre che parlare con i genitori nei miei incontri periodici, per capire il motivo di questa scelta, a fronte di una completamente diversa portata avanti fino a qualche mese prima, non potei fare altro.

Il risultato fu che faticò moltissimo per i primi due anni, i genitori spesero tantissimi soldi in ripetizioni di greco e latino, ne risentì la socializzazione ed iniziò a chiudersi a riccio con tutti. Finalmente, dopo un ulteriore colloquio, i genitori si decisero a fargli proseguire gli studi che lui preferiva, facendogli, comunque, sostenere un esame integrativo non banale, e, da allora, la strada fu in discesa in quanto la fatica dello studio e l’impegno erano sostenuti da un preciso obiettivo futuro. Motivo per cui, ai tempi, aveva cambiato la sua scelta? Perché i genitori ritenevano il liceo artistico, rispetto al classico, un liceo di serie B.

Quindi, confrontarsi sempre con la famiglia, ma cercare di far comprendere a tutti, se si è fermamente convinti di ciò che si vuole, quali siano gli obiettivi per il futuro. Inoltre, genitori, vi ricordo che il tempo a scuola lo trascorrono i vostri figli e che bisogna fare in modo che la scuola non sia un incubo ma uno dei periodi più formativi, anche da un punto di vista sociale, che ci si porterà dentro per sempre.

Dunque, in qualche paragrafo sopra ho accennato a dei passi da compiere prima della scelta di una scuola secondaria, quindi, ecco l’elenco:

  1. individuare le materie, tra quelle che si stanno studiando, che piacciono di più, per le quali si è più portati. Per facilitare questo compito basta riflettere, ad esempio, sulla matematica: se il solo pensiero di affrontarla fa venire i brividi allora sono già esclusi gli indirizzi di tale genere, lo stesso se si trova difficoltà eccessiva nello studio delle lingue o nell’italiano;
  2. distanza da casa: fattore importante soprattutto se si è di indole “dormigliona”. Arrivare tardi in classe e subire un rimprovero può creare ansia e, soprattutto, cercare a tutti i costi di arrivare prima può far svegliare lo studente nervoso predisponendo negativamente lo svolgimento della giornata scolastica;
  3. una volta stabilito l’indirizzo da intraprendere andare agli open day che le scuole organizzano per studenti delle scuole medie, solitamente il sabato. In tal modo si avrà la possibilità di fare tutte le domande, che, consiglio di prepararsi a casa, possono essere fatte ai professori, agli altri studenti e a chi organizza l’open day e, perché no, se previsto, assistere ad una lezione. Inoltre farsi un giro per i corridoi, immaginarsi seduti in un’aula o alla lavagna, immaginare di percorrere ogni giorno il tragitto verso quella scuola oppure di svolgere le attività extrascolastiche previste con altri compagni, è un utile esercizio mentale per capire se quella situazione creerebbe disagio;
  4. dopo aver partecipato a tutti gli open day scrivere i pro ed i contro di ogni scuola visitata su un foglio bianco.

Relativamente a studenti con DSA i consigli sono i medesimi, l’unica ulteriore accortezza è quella di accertarsi che nella scuola scelta vi siano tutti gli strumenti necessari per una didattica personalizzata, come tablet, registratori e, soprattutto, l’approccio positivo dell’istituto scolastico nei confronti dell’applicazione della L. 170/2010.

Auguro a tutti gli studenti di vivere le scuole secondarie superiori non solo come impegno ma, soprattutto, come un momento della vita da ricordare con il sorriso e, magari, coltivare amicizie durature nel tempo.

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