Il linguaggio si sviluppa nell’uomo già dal primo vagito per poi progredire, rapidamente, per tutta la lunga fase dell’infanzia.

La grande ricchezza di stimoli che circondano il bambino, il desiderio di esplorazione e la normale curiosità si traducono nel desiderio di chiedere, domandare e, di conseguenza, comunicare. Tale forma di comunicazione, però, può diventare incessante e, talvolta, maggiore delle reali abilità comunicative.

In questo panorama potrebbe “affacciarsi” la balbuzie che fa parte di quella categoria definita “disturbo del linguaggio”.

Il problema della balbuzie scaturisce dalla difficoltà del bambino di individuare rapidamente le parole corrette per manifestare i concetti che si accavallano nella sua mente e che vuole comunicare; la difficoltà è nel fatto che la velocità con la quale corrono i suoi pensieri è di gran lunga superiore rispetto alla sua capacità di esprimerli a parole. Questa difficoltà potrebbe presentarsi, anche, in seguito alla nascita di un fratellino, per problemi tra genitori, per separazioni o per lutti in famiglia.

Questo fenomeno, che rientra nella tipologia di balbuzie primaria (apparente e transitoria, caratterizzata da fisiologiche e normali disfluenze, intermittenti esitazioni, ripetizioni sillabiche), tende a risolversi spontaneamente, generalmente nel giro di qualche mese.

Il disturbo di linguaggio dei 3-5 anni , infatti, è molto diverso da quello che si presenta in età scolare, dove è consigliato intervenire con un aiuto logopedico di professionisti competenti nella balbuzie, e ancora diverso da quello dell’età adulta. Prima dell’età scolare, quindi in età infantile, la balbuzie può essere considerata un fenomeno molto comune, specialmente nei maschietti (3%).

I genitori non sono mai preparati a questo evento spesso improvviso e, a tale proposito, possono venire in aiuto alcune indicazioni:

– non interrompere il discorso del piccolo chiedendogli di ripetere ciò che dice in modo non corretto per evitare di metterlo in imbarazzo;

– non sostituirsi al bambino nel completare la frase o la parola;

– non dirgli di calmarsi per evitare che l’ansia aumenti;

– non perdere la pazienza e non sgridarlo per gli errori perchè non è voluto;

– non mostrarsi, altresì, divertiti poichè questo non sarebbe di stimolo per il bambino ad autocorreggersi.

In sostanza, quindi, armarsi di “santa pazienza”, ascoltare il bambino senza trasmettergli nessuna emozione negativa di disagio e/o di fastidio, articolare bene le parole quando ci si rivolge al bambino in modo che, ascoltando il suono delle parole, possa ripeterle correggendosi da solo.

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